NGC 4438 (UGC 7574, Arp 120) and NGC 4435 (UGC 7575) Galaxies in Virgo

aka "The Eyes"

NGC 4438 is located at: RA 12 hours 27 minutes 46 seconds, Dec +13 degrees 00 minutes 31 seconds

Size: 8.6' x 3.1' and 2.7' x 2.0';Magnitude: 11.0 blue and 11.7 blue Class: SA(s)0/a pec: and SB(s)o^

North is up

West to the right

Telescope:

 8" f5 Newtonian reflector

Camera:

 ST-8XME, self-guided, binned 1x1, temp -15c & -20c, camera control MaxIm DL 4.56

Image:

Lumicon Red filter, 580 minutes (58 x 10 minute subs), 04/20/27/28/2012; seeing 2.6-3.6 FWHM per CCDStack

Processing:

CCDStack 2.66.4490.32361, Photoshop CS5.1

Location:

 Rolling Roof Observatory, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 (+34d 13m 29s -118h 52m 20s)

Notes: This pair of galaxies is just a bit east of the galaxy pair M 84 and M 86 (M 86 is the large elliptical galaxy at the west <right> edge), the heart of Virgo cluster of galaxies. NGC 4438/4435 are also at the center of "Markarian's Chain" of galaxies. Also, see this Cloudy Nights Telescope Reviews of Markarian's Chain.

Above M 86 at the west (right) edge is NGC 4402 (4.7'x1.0', 12.6b mag, Cl:Sb sp), to the northeast (upper left) of NGC 4438/35 are NGC 4461 (3.6'x1.4', 11.1v mag, Cl:SB(s)0+:), and the round little NGC 4458 (1.5'x1.5', 12.0v mag, Cl:E0-1).  There are other IC and VCC galaxies throughout the field.

From the NGC / IC Project:

Contemporary Visual Observation(s) for NGC 4435
NGC 4435 = UGC 07575 = MCG +02-32-064 = VV 188 Arp 120 = The Eyes = PGC 40898
12 27 40.5 +13 04 44
V = 10.8;  Size 2.8x2.0;  SB = 12.5;  PA = 13d

17.5": bright, fairly small, oval SSW-NNE, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms 
a striking pair called the "Eyes" with slightly fainter N4438 4.5' SSE.  Located 
20' E of M86 in the central core of the Virgo cluster.

- by Steve Gottlieb
Historical Research Notes / Correction for NGC 4435
NGC 4435.  See NGC 4443. - Dr. Harold G. Corwin, Jr. (*)

Contemporary Visual Observation(s) for NGC 4438

NGC 4438 = UGC 07574 = MCG +02-32-065 = Arp 120 = VV 188 = The Eyes = PGC 40914
12 27 45.5 +13 00 32
V = 10.2;  Size 8.5x3.2;  SB = 13.6;  PA = 27d

17.5": bright, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, small bright core.  Forms a striking pair 
with N4435 4.5' NNW.  The core is not as large or bright as N4435.  Located in 
the center of the Virgo cluster 23' E of M86.

- by Steve Gottlieb
Historical Research Notes / Correction for NGC 4438
NGC 4438.  See NGC 4443. - Dr. Harold G. Corwin, Jr. (*)
Contemporary Visual Observation(s) for NGC 4458
NGC 4458 = UGC 07610 = MCG +02-32-082 = PGC 41095
12 28 57.6 +13 14 31
V = 12.1;  Size 1.7x1.6;  SB = 13.2

17.5": moderately bright, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, small bright core, 
faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 11.5 star lies 2.1' E.  Forms a pair with N4461 
3.7' SSE.  Located in the core of the Virgo cluster.

13": faint, small, almost round, small faint nucleus.  A mag 11 star is close E.

- by Steve Gottlieb
Historical Research Notes / Correction for NGC 4458
NGC 4458.  See NGC 4443. - Dr. Harold G. Corwin, Jr. (*)
Contemporary Visual Observation(s) for NGC 4461
NGC 4443 = N4461? = U07613 = MCG +02-32-084 = PGC 41111
12 29 03.0 +13 11 02

See observing notes for N4461.  NGC identification very uncertain.

- by Steve Gottlieb
=================================================================
NGC 4461 = UGC 07613 = MCG +02-32-084 = N4443? = PGC 41111
12 29 03.0 +13 11 02
V = 11.2;  Size 3.5x1.4;  SB = 12.8;  PA = 9d

17.5": fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 ~N-S, very small bright core 
possibly stellar.  Form a pair with N4458 3.7' NW.  The striking N4435/N4438 
pair lies 21' SW.  Located in core of the Virgo cluster.

- by Steve Gottlieb
Historical Research Notes / Correction for NGC 4461
NGC 4461.  See NGC 4443. - Dr. Harold G. Corwin, Jr. (*)
*Contemporary Visual Observation(s) for NGC 4443*
NGC 4443 = N4461? = U07613 = MCG +02-32-084 = PGC 41111
12 29 03.0 +13 11 02

See observing notes for N4461.  NGC identification very uncertain.

- by Steve Gottlieb
=================================================================
NGC 4461 = UGC 07613 = MCG +02-32-084 = N4443? = PGC 41111
12 29 03.0 +13 11 02
V = 11.2;  Size 3.5x1.4;  SB = 12.8;  PA = 9d

17.5": fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 ~N-S, very small bright core 
possibly stellar.  Form a pair with N4458 3.7' NW.  The striking N4435/N4438 
pair lies 21' SW.  Located in core of the Virgo cluster.

- by Steve Gottlieb
*Historical Research Notes / Correction for NGC 4443*
NGC 4443 has usually been taken as a star following NGC 4435 and NGC 4438.
Exactly which star, I'm not sure as there is nothing at the NGC position aside
from a 19th or 20th magnitude object.  

In any event, the only evidence we have for this comes from one observation in 
1849 when LdR sketched this as the last of 11 nebulae.  The sketch is fairly 
crude and the distances between the objects does not correspond well to what 
we see on the sky.  Indeed, LdR himself says, "Found the objects as in sketch,
positions being put down very rudely."  Nevertheless, we -- and Dreyer who 
identified the objects for LdR's 1880 monograph -- can recognize the brightest 
galaxies in an east-west swath of sky through the center of the Virgo Cluster.
His objects are as follows (in his order):

  alpha   = NGC 4305
  beta    = NGC 4306
  gamma   = NGC 4374
  delta   = NGC 4387
  epsilon = NGC 4388
  zeta    = NGC 4406
  eta     = NGC 4402
  lambda  = NGC 4425
  theta   = NGC 4435
  iota    = NGC 4438
  kappa   = NGC 4443

As I noted above, there is nothing in the exact position of LdR's "kappa", but
NGC 4461 is not too far away.  It is certainly not a big stretch to this 
galaxy, and its description is a relative fit to the other galaxies.  

The objection to this is that only one galaxy is shown in the sketch, whereas 
there are, of course, two on the sky:  NGC 4458 is not too far northwest of
N4461.  Given the hurried nature of the observations, though, it may be that
LdR thought N4458 to be a star.  It is considerably smaller and fainter than
its companion, so this is a possibility.

So, I'm going to take N4443 to be a duplicate discovery of N4461, but with 
some uncertainty. - Dr. Harold G. Corwin, Jr.